Four study topics that will help you hear chord changes
Master the V-I and V-i
In jazz education there is a lot of focus on the ii-V and ii-V-I. That’s great, but make sure you really know the V to I in minor and major.
Try using a dominant pentatonic for the V chord and a major pentatonic for the I chord. Notice fa and ti resolve to mi and do. In minor, try a Dominant b9 pentatonic for the V chord and a minor pentatonic for the i chord.
Relate Chords to the Tonic
Know how every chord relates to the key that you are in. These are usually expressed in roman numerals. Be aware of how similar or different a chord is from the tonic. What does the IV chord sound like against the tonic or I chord? Sounds like a Isus.
Try playing through changes with a static harmony of I, the tonic chord, playing in the rhythm section. Hear the tensions.
Improvise with Arpeggios
Practice arpeggios through a set of chord changes. Try to stay strictly with the root, third, fifth, and seventh of that chord. This a great way to really dive into chord changes.
See if you can play through the changes without any rhythm section or harmony. Can you hear the changes?
Be aware of how a note relates to the current Chord and the Tonic. Let’s say we are in the key of C and our current chord is G7. If we are play a B note we should know that this pitch is the third of G7 and the seventh of the tonic.
As you are practicing a phrase or improvising, name each notes relationship to the current harmony and the tonic.
Practicing these four topics will help to have you hearing changes. Don’t expect immediate results. Your ear and skills on guitar will improve with steady practice. The goal is to hear every note on any given harmony.